Friday, November 30, 2007

More Advanced Modeling Types


High Fashion Modeling is the modeling for famous fashion houses and designer, either at fashion shows or in publications. The pay rate is the highest among all modeling jobs. Of course, the advertisers' expectations also run high. To get this kind of job you must be experienced and known model with a proven track record for this type of modeling.

RUNWAY MODELING Runway Models works in Fashion Shows, where clothes designers present their upcoming designs or Fashion Shows, run by a store, mall, club etc. All runway models must meet special requirements and have measurements that fit an actual standard clothing size. Almost all modeling agencies works with Runway Models.

EDITORIAL MODELING Editorial Modeling is similar to High Fashion Modeling, except that the model works for a particular publication. The readers of that publication make up a target audience for the photographs taken. Images in the non-advertisement sections of the fashion magazines are good examples of this type of modeling. Even the pay rate is considerably low, Editorial modeling is a great way to open the door to High Fashion Modeling.

GLAMOUR MODELING There are no established physical requirements for Glamour Models, other than the model must be beautiful and sexy in the photographs. An elegant lady in an evening dress, the eye-catching face of a beautiful girl, a shapely woman in casual dress, swim-wear, or lingerie can all become subjects for glamour photography. Most of the nude photography also falls into this category. Pay rates can be very good for Glamour Modeling. Usually, the pay rate doubles for posing in lingerie or in the nude. Some Figure and Art Modeling, typically artistic nude photography, is also included in the Glamour Modeling category.

CATALOGUE MODELING While some Catalogue Modeling involves posing with products, most is done wearing store-brand clothes. Pay rates are considerably lower than for High Fashion Modeling. Look through some mail-order catalogs to get an idea of what is involved. Several years ago it was absolutely impossible to see the Top Models in any catalogue. But everything is changing. Even famous models are modeling for catalogues now.

SPECIALTY MODELING There are numerous other Specialty Modeling opportunities. Models (male and female) with beautiful hands have opportunities to display their hands demonstrating different products. For men, it could be masculine hand, or alternatively the more elegant, long-fingered hand. Women with well-proportioned feet are needed for shoe advertisements. Advertisements of stockings, pantyhose, and razors require women with nicely shaped legs. Hair products call for female and male models with good hair. Portfolio must include a few photographs that emphasize areas of your body you might use for Specialty Modeling.

CHARACTER MODELING Some jobs require models with an everyday look, such as a truck driver, mechanic, grocery clerk, schoolteacher, cleaning person, appliance repair person, and so on. All models in television commercials are character models.

CONVENTION AND TRADE SHOW MODELING These shows use many female models to demonstrate products, hand out leaflets or brochures, and answer questions.

COMMERCIAL PRINT MODELING When models are photographed to promote a product. Photographs can appear on buses, magazines, newspapers and billboards.

MODELING IN TV COMMERCIALS TV Commercials offer a growing area of opportunities to models with some acting background. Many modeling agencies now include a TV Commercial Department.

OTHER OPPORTUNITIES FOR MODELS There are opportunities for the oversized or undersized model. The demand for ordinary-looking models with whom a majority of the audience can identify continues to increase. The market for full-figure models is growing and includes editorial, commercials, television and more. Many other opportunities exist that might fall into one of the modeling categories mentioned above.

Thursday, November 29, 2007

On Location Bag Recommendations

For Women

  • Bras - skin-coloured, white and black Panties - skin-coloured, white and black
  • Body stocking - to match your skin tone Tank Tops Pick Primary colors and bring a couple.
  • Tights - black and skin-coloured
  • Hair and make-up bags
  • Nail care bag - emery boards, clippers, buffer, polish
  • Hygiene necessities - tampons, deodorants, razors
  • Your wardrobe should include jeans, T-shirts and two basic outfits - casual and formal.
  • Take along saris with matching blouses and petticoats since they are requested for frequently.Pastel shades work best.
  • Accessories - scarves, headbands, hats, gloves, sunglasses, prop spectacles, belts and jewellery
  • Shoes - Bring a black pair and a bone-white pair of shoes. Sandles are also a good idea if the shoot is outdoors.

For Men

  • Underwear - white and skin-coloured briefs with athletic support
  • Socks - various colours and styles
  • Shoes - white trainers, classic black shoes
  • Trousers - various colours and seasonal fabrics
  • Jeans - classic blue and black
  • Make-up - foundation and powder to match your skin tone
  • Hair products - spray, gel, brush, comb, etc.
  • Hygiene necessities - deodorant, eye drops, contact lens solution, razors, etc.
  • Shoes - trainers, black and brown dress shoes, black and brown casual shoes, cowboy boots and sandals
  • Shirts - dress shirts, sports shirts, casual shirts in a variety of colours
  • Trousers - various colours and fabrics, including denim Swimwear - boxer-style shorts and self-coloured briefs Accessories - prop spectacles, watch, gold band, etc

Finding Work as a Photography Model

Create an Impressive Model Portfolio. You may be the hottest model in town. But you still need to have professional photographs Nothing will turn off prospective employers faster than posting amateur photos in your portfolio. Photos should be well lit and show detail about your look. If your goal is nude photography, you will need to keep the images artistic. As a general rule, photos that leave something to the imagination are the most effective and compelling. You should always include at least three to five photos in your portfolio showing different looks. It is well worth paying a photographer to create a professional portfolio of pictures. To choose the right photographer, get references and look at his/her previous work. Are the pictures good enough to be found in a magazine. On a budget, try doing a modeling for prints deal with an upstart photographer. Have ideas of what you want and get everything in writing before the shoot. Including releases. Giving the photographer samples makes it easier for both of you. The better the photos in your portfolio, the more offers you are likely to receive.

Create a Special Look. Make-up, posing, lighting and fashionable clothing can go a long way in helping you create a special “look” for yourself. You can learn various make-up techniques, such as the proper use of concealers to cover up bags or unwanted blemishes, by perusing women’s magazines or by hiring a professional make-up artist to help you look your best for your portfolio. Also, don’t show up for an interview or your portfolio shoot in clothes that are too casual or that represent a style that is outdated. Keep tabs on current styles and capitalize on your strengths. If possible, hire a stylist who is familiar with your needs.

Consider All Modeling Jobs. Modeling is a diverse field. Other jobs that put you in front of the camera or people will help build your confidence and give you more references. It can be as simple as handing out promotional materials at a convention or tradeshow.

Runway Tips. There is an art to posing gracefully on the catwalk. Stand up straight and always look out towards the audience—don’t look down. Keep your hands in a natural position. It helps to practice your runway walk in front of a mirror to develop your own carefree style. Watch runway models in action and practice, practice, practice.

Practice Etiquette and Be Professional. When you’re offered a modeling job, pay close attention to the instructions you are given. Write them down and repeat them if you have any doubts. Always be pleasant and courteous to every staff member—photographers, make-up artists, etc. These people do talk to each other and people outside the particular agency. Always be a little early to your photo shoots. DO NOT PARTY UNTIL THE JOB IS DONE. Send a nice thank you card to the company after the shoot.

Modeling Terms


creates advertising campaigns for clients, selects models.


artist who creates layout for ads, illustrates model's poses.


the actual physical movements by actors in any scene.


enlargement photo from a negative or slide.


person at agency who sets appointments for models.


when you tell your agency that you are unavailable to work for certain day(s).


advance payment for future use of a print ad or a commercial for a specific period of time.


choosing models/actors for a specific job


posing for mail order items for major retailers.


several agencies send many models of the same general type to a casting session.


script used to describe clothes for a fashion show.


promotional advertisement on TV, radio or other media.


a percentage of model's fee required as payment to agency.


card with 3­5 photos of model and their details to promote and distribute to prospective clients.


ad agency employee who determines the model type.

  • FADS

an overdone fashion; passing craze.


puts fashion shows outfits together in retail stores.


modelling the original sample garment to test for sizing ­ clients chose a model whose measurements match the sample size exactly.


invited audience, stage, music; models walk down runway to show designer clothing.


modelling for many clients without agency representation.


head to toe photograph.


agency sheet, poster, or book of models they represent that goes to prospective clients.


extreme, chic, sophisticated model type.


poses for artists.


in stores or restaurants, walk around, no runway


Position of model and garment in a fashion show.


assignment site outside the studio.


4­6 times per year when seasonal clothing lines are shown to buyers.


a large tote in which you carry all your makeup and working essentials.


contract in which the model gives permission to use the photo as the client specifies.


represents model for employment and receives a percentage of the bookings.


a scene performed by one person for a client, that reflects a particular mood and demonstrates your acting talent.


casting when the client sees all models suitable for the type requested.


casebook which show the model at his/her photogenic best and samples of their work (tearsheets).


photography taken for catalogue and mail order, books, brochures, ads for magazines or newspapers, magazine covers, commercial photography for household products, business products and services, glamour products.


intermediate stage of photo development from which you can chose best poses.


creating an image of a product or service in the eyes of the public, mainly through newspaper articles.


additional money paid when a piece runs in repeat.


calling on prospective clients for photography and television.


a narrow raised platform on which the model shows the clothing.


to look for prospective models from other, smaller agencies, other locations.


manufacturer's showcase of a clothing line to buyers using live models ­ when the seasonal clothing designs are being shown.


to state your name on camera before your commercial audition.


photographer's idea of a comp, which he/she hopes to sell to the client.


model chosen to explain the features of a product/service.


Statistical information of a model, including measurements, size, height, etc


one whose work is not for a specific client or job, but whose photos get listed in a general catalogue by number for any client to select.


artwork that shows each scene of a commercial.


light unit used by a photographer.


celebrity declaration to the value of a product/service; improvisational endorsement of a product or service that the actor has officially tested, used and approved.


free or low cost photos used to build a beginning portfolio 3/4.


photo from head to mid thigh.


industry promotional display of products/services usually in a hotel or convention centre.


the slide forms of a photograph.


informal modeling of one specific designer line, usually in a store or small boutique.


additional fees for higher exposure, like a billboard or national use.


a location job that is dependent on fair weather, may be cancelled the day before or that morning.

Basic Requirements for Modeling

HEIGHT Women: minimum 5'6" Men: minimum 5'11" AGE Many people will say that 28 is the high limit for models. However, that is not a hard fast rule. People with good physique and fit other criteria can be very popular in certain markets. Ideally a young woman starting should be 12 to 22 years old and men must be 18 to 25. WEIGHT A model should be slim and well proportioned. Depending on the trend or the market, a magazine may opt for a slender silhouette or a more curvaceous look. A slim-waisted woman with long legs will always be more photogenic than one who is the same height but has a longer torso and heavy legs. Male models should be athletic and muscular, but shouldn't have the exaggerated look of body builders. Proportion is always a key factor.

GENERAL COMMENTS It is impossible to specify individual facial features, since a model's character, beauty and above all photogenic qualities are the sum of them all. Healthy skin, well-cared-for teeth and natural, well-cut hair are generally sought after. PHOTOGENIC QUALITIES Many pretty girls do not meet the ultimate photogenic requirement - the right face. Photogenic is not a matter of sheer beauty. Slightly above average looks can often be quite photogenic. This criterion is the most subjective and the hardest to evaluate. Only a modeling professional can give you an accurate appraisal of your photogenic potential. Physical appearance isn't everything. You also need a certain temperament to be a model. You should be aware that it's an exciting but highly demanding line of work. POISE A model meets many people in many situations - auditions, photo shoots, fashion shows, go-sees - and in different countries. It's important to be at ease, to be able to communicate easily and to radiate self-confidence. An outgoing person with an appealing smile will always receive more work than someone who is shy and withdrawn. CAN YOU TRAVEL ALONE AND ARE YOU PROFESSIONAL Traveling. on business is a far cry from a vacation. Adult models often travel alone. This is one of modeling's most difficult requirements. It takes a great deal of character and independence. Unfortunately many of the biggest modeling assignments will involve travel. Successful models become adept at living out of a suitcase. You must be comfortable being by yourself for long periods of time. SELF-RELIANCE Models have to be organized to ensure they arrive punctually in places they may barely know. Small crises and problems must be overcome without interrupting the job. ORGANIZED You are a professional model It is a job and you need to conduct yourself appropriately. DISCIPLINE You have to be organized, available and presentable at all times.You need to get lots of sleep, eat properly, and avoiding smoking and long parties. Your body is your product. Take care of it.

Only the best organized and most disciplined will set themselves apart and perhaps become top models. INTELLIGENCE You should be an intelligent business person or have a good manager. You must know how to conduct business with agents, photographers and clients. CONFIDENCE Clients are looking for someone who is self-assured and whom they think can sell their product. A model must be able to sell themselves before they can sell a product. You will need to get past rejection. No model could meet the expectations of every possible client.

  • STAMINA A model is sometimes on their feet all day in the adverse weather and around pushy ad people. An advertising shoot is expensive so breaks are not always regular. You must be healthy and in shape to be able to work all day and still look good. A healthy lifestyle will pay off. Your Portfolio Your portfolio and your resume are your advertising. Since the market is the deciding factor, you must place your product, i.e., your portfolio photos, in the market. A model's portfolio is their main selling tool. Presentation, quality and variety of shots are all very important factors to be considered. Agencies and photographers will address this area differently based upon their needs and the market segment they serve. Your portfolio should be your best work. Get a professional or a well skilled photographer to work with you. You can trade for prints. Many people on send is terrible images and hope to get work. Be a pro. Your portfolio is your responsibility. If you work with a specific agency they should have a copy to show potential clients. Use the internet. Sites like are excellent places to be listed. If possible, also try to include photos where you are interacting with other people. This shows prospective clients that you can work with others and your skill to interact. A good model portfolio should include:
  • At least one full-length shot showing the proportion of your body (feet to knees, knees to thighs, thighs to waist, waist to shoulders, shoulders to the top of your head). You could wear a leotard or a body suit, depending on what makes you comfortable and flatters your figure.
  • At least two head shots with different expressions. At least two fashion shots (one casual and one a little more formal). If you move well, you might like to include an action shot.

Every portfolio needs a mix of looks and types of assignments. You will also need at least one great body shot. If you are looking to assemble a portfolio for yourself on a budget, try gathering a team of new talent. Each of you can then use the photographs in your respective portfolios. Models usually start by doing the rounds of ad agencies if their portfolio pictures are not flattering enough. If you think that your portfolio does you justice, simply post them to the agency coordinator, though you run the risk of the envelope bearing your pictures being put into the dustbin.

Basic Types of Modeling

Fashion Modeling

Fashion modeling seems to be a growing part of the industry. It encompasses everything from fashion shoots for ads, websites, and mail-order catalogues in advanced countries to live shows for design houses to promotions of all kinds of apparel. The term 'fashion', in this context, refers to clothing and accessories. Ideally, you must be a sample size - women need to be (at least) 5.6 feet tall, weigh approx. 110 to 120 lbs and possess vital statistics of 34-24-35 in. Men should be about (at least) 5'9" tall, weigh approximately 170 Ibs"., with vital statistics of 39-32-37 in.. Clear healthy skin, good teeth, great expressions, clear eyes and healthy hair are common traits. Your personality should be extroverted and unafraid of performing. Modeling clothing and accessories involves learning to walk, move, and showing off the clothing to make it appealing. Viewers will look at a model and often imagine themselves in that outfit. Clothing is designed to appeal to specific lifestyles looks. The entire effect must enhance the image of the clothes and be consistent throughout. Keep in mind that your "look" may help or hurt you when it comes to specific jobs. Do not take it personally - perhaps you will have the right image for the opportunity! Be sure you have read the article on this site as well to make sure you presented yourself professionally.

Editorial Print Modeling

This refers to photography for magazines, including covers. This work is very eagerly sought after by models because of the exposure and the chance for repeat work. To achieve this goal you can expect to work long and hard. The smaller jobs are but you will get tear sheets for your portfolio that will help you get work. Commercial Print Modeling

This refers to when models are photographed to promote a product on billboards, buses, magazines and newspapers. This type of modeling can be divided into two sections: Fashion Advertising and Product Advertising. Runway (Ramp) Modeling

This is one of the best ways to gain exposure. However, this type of work can be very regional. It is considered the most glamorous type of modeling and requires a lot of confidence and grace. You must make the audience think that you love the outfit you are wearing. You should look comfortable and at home in even the dullest outfit. There is a minimum height requirement of 5'6" for runway work. Glamour Agency Typical Work

Models that are willing to do topless and/or nude work may have many opportunities, but not always quality ones. Pick any job in this area with care and read all the fine print on print usage. While Europeans are very comfortable with the human form Americans are "officially" pretty up tight. If you are a serious model pick any work in this area with great care so that you do not taint yourself. While in Africa especially Nigeria where our culture might not necessarily accommodate it because it sends out the wrong signals.

Chinedu Echeruo On Hotlist of Black America's Most Powerful Achievers Under 40

26 Nov 2007 20:06 Africa/Lagos BLACK ENTERPRISE Magazine Unveils Its 2007 Hot List: America's Most Powerful Players Under 40 December issue hits newsstands with five exclusive, consecutive covers: LeBron James, Chris Brown and Kirk Franklin, Queen Latifah, Wyclef Jean and John Legend, and Venus Williams NEW YORK, Nov. 26 /PRNewswire/ -- BLACK ENTERPRISE (BE) today unveiled its 2007 HOT LIST: America's Most Powerful Players Under 40 as featured in the December issue. High Resolution Photograph: For the very first time, BE hits newsstands with five exclusive, consecutive covers, a first in the magazine's 37-year history. The groundbreaking covers feature NBA superstar LeBron James, Pop/R&B phenomenon Chris Brown with gospel powerhouse Kirk Franklin, hip-hop star/entrepreneur Queen Latifah, platinum chart-toppers Wyclef Jean and John Legend, and tennis ace turned fashionista Venus Williams. The BE Hot List is comprised of ultimate achievers under the age of 40 in media, music, entertainment, and sports. "These celebrities have shrewdly leveraged their fame to build multimillion-dollar empires that will sustain them beyond their careers in sports and entertainment," says be Editor-at- Large Carolyn Brown. "Plus, this year's list goes outside the box to include business executives, top-ranked money managers, and medical researchers whose impact on our world is undeniable." The 2007 HOT LIST: America's Most Powerful Players Under 40: DeAnna Allen, 39, Partner, Dickstein Shapiro L.L.P. Tyra Banks, 34, TV Producer, Bankable Productions Mary J. Blige, 36, Singer Chris Brown, 18, Singer, Actor Nana Boateng, 30, Designer Kawanna Brown, 34, Chief Operating Officer, Magic Johnson Cos. Nick Cannon, 27, Actor, TV Producer Edwidge Danticat, 38, Author, Brother I'm Dying Adrian M. Fenty, 37, Mayor, District of Columbia Shawn "Jay-Z" Carter, 37, Rapper, President & CEO, Def Jam Susan Chapman, 39, Global Head of Operations, Citi Realty Services Sean "Diddy" Combs, 37, Rapper, CEO, Music/TV Producer, Bad Boy Worldwide Entertainment Group T. Troy Dixon, 36, Managing Director, Deutsche Bank Securities Rosalyn Durant, 31, Vice President, Programming & Acquisitions, ESPN Chinedu You. Echeruo, 34, Founder, CEO, Lisa Ellis, 37, Executive Vice President, Sony Music Label Group Kirk Franklin, 37, Singer Amy Ellis-Simon, 35, Managing Director, Head, Multiproduct Sales & Emerging Client Coverage, Merrill Lynch Njema Frazier, 37, Physicist, National Nuclear Security Administration Sean "The Pen" Garrett, 29, Songwriter, Music Producer Magnus Greaves, 33, Founder, Doubledown Media Richard C. Gay, 39, Senior Vice President, Strategy & Business Operations, VH1 & CMT Tracy Green, 36, Associate Executive Director, Finance Department, Bellevue Hospital Center Thierry Henry, 30, Professional Athlete Floyd Nathaniel "Danja" Hills, 26, Music Producer Lewis Hamilton, 22, Professional Athlete, Formula One race driver Mellody Hobson, 38, President, Ariel Capital Management L.L.C. Barrington Irving, 24, Aviator Curtis "50 Cent" Jackson, 32, Rapper Paulianda Jones, M.D., 28, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine Alicia Keys, 26, Singer, Songwriter, Actress Melanie Kinchen, M.D., 38, Medical Director, Orthopaedic Surgeon, Presbyterian Intercommunity Hospital Spine Center Ronald Holt, Jr., 39, President & CEO, Hansberger Global Investors Inc. Charles King, 38, Senior Vice President, Agent, William Morris Agency Beyonce Knowles, 26, Singer, Actress Kimora Lee Simmons, 32, Creative Director, Phat Fashions L.L.C. Phil Ivey, 31, Professional Poker Player Kevin Liles, 39, Executive Vice President, Warner Music Group Treena Livingston Arinzeh, 37, Biomedical Engineer, New Jersey Institute of Technology Vanessa Morrison, 38, President, Twentieth Century Fox Animation LeBron James, 22, Professional Athlete, Cleveland Cavaliers Tim "Timbaland" Mosley, 36, Music Producer Andrea Nelson Meigs, 39, Talent Agent, International Creative Management Wyclef Jean, 35, Rapper, Music Producer Will Packer, 33, and Rob Hardy, 35, Film Producers; Director, Rainforest Films Steve Pamon, 37, Senior Vice President, Digital Distribution & Strategic Partnerships, Home Box Office Brian Parker, 32, Vice President of Emerging Markets & New Business Development, Choice Hotels International Tyler Perry, 38, Playwright, Actor, Screenwriter, CEO, Tyler Perry Studios John Legend, 29, Singer Dana "Queen Latifah" Owens, 37, Singer, Actress Lisa Pickrum, 37, Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer, RLJ Cos. Usher Raymond IV, 29, Singer, Actor Shonda Rhimes, 37, TV Producer, Writer, Director, Grey's Anatomy Marcus Samuelsson, 37, Co-Owner, Aquavit Will Smith, 39, Actor, Film Producer Window Snyder, 32, "Chief Security Something or Other," Mozilla Steve Stoute, 37, Founder, Chairman, Translation Consultation & Brand Imaging LaDainian Tomlinson, 28, Professional Athlete, San Diego Chargers Kara Walker, 38, Artist, Kara Walker: My Complement, My Enemy, My Oppressor, My Love Shane and Shawn Ward, 34, President & Co-Founder; Creative Director & Co- Founder, Detny footwear by SHANE&SHAWN Kanye West, 30, Music Producer, Rapper Stevie Williams, 28, Professional Athlete, Skateboarding Venus Williams, 27, Professional Athlete, Tennis Kehinde Wiley, 30, Artist, Recognize! Hip Hop and Contemporary Portraiture Eldrick "Tiger" Woods, 32, Professional Athlete, Golf BLACK ENTERPRISE, your ultimate source for wealth creation, is the premier business, investing, and wealth-building resource for African Americans. Since 1970, BE has provided essential business information and advice to professionals, corporate executives, entrepreneurs, and decision makers. Every month, BLACK ENTERPRISE magazine provides 3.9 million readers with information on entrepreneurship, careers, and financial management. A multimedia company, BE also produces radio and television programming, business and lifestyle events, Web content, and digital media. BLACK ENTERPRISE is the definitive source of information for and about African American business markets and leaders, and the authority on black business news and trends. Photo: NewsCom: AP Archive: PRN Photo Desk, Source: BLACK ENTERPRISE CONTACT: Andrew Wadium of BLACK ENTERPRISE, +1-212-886-9598, Web site: Photo: BLACK ENTERPRISE MAGAZINE UNVEILS ITS 2007 HOT LIST: AMERICA'S MOST POWERFUL PLAYERS UNDER 40. December issue hits newsstands with five exclusive, consecutive covers: LeBron James (shown), Chris Brown and Kirk Franklin, Queen Latifah, Wyclef Jean and John Legend, and Venus Williams.

How to Become a Model

How are models discovered?

Everyday some notices eyes, bone structure, the planes of a face, or a great look. The words "You should be a model" are heard and a path may start. With stars in their eyes they start a path which will have all the feel of a roller coaster. What next?

Here are my recommendations. These are based upon my readings, and what I believe it takes to succeed in this field. Read them. Think about them. Combine these thoughts with other articles on this and other sites and then plan your modeling career. You will find authors with different viewpoints and definitions. This does not mean that one person is wrong or mis-leading you? Not necessarily. We all have different experiences and thus we developed different perceptions. It is my hope that when you have completed your studies you will find a consensus and have a plan which works for you. You are an individual who lives in your particular part of the world and with your limitations. There is no one formula.

Overnight success stories are rarely true. Someone may seem to rocket to the top overnight but you can be rest assured that it was not an accident. Every career has its own demands and unique sacrifices. Most aspiring models don't realize there is a lot of work involved and they get frustrated when things don't move quickly. If you are informed and you have a plan you will be better prepared for the roller coaster. You need to be physically, mentally and emotionally prepared for what this career will take. It is critical to understand the industry as a whole and in your part of the world to succeed in this career.